They wrote about the Fancy Goldfish in the first years of the Sung dynasty (960 AD). The fishes were discovered in eastern China from Beijing to Macau. Selected breeding resulted in the different variants of the fancy beauties. Two centuries later the wonderful animals arrived in Japan through Korea. Whether America followed or Europe is not stuck. One of the variants calls Oranda. This is Japanese corruption for Holland. Really an indication! Many variants were cultivated in the land of the rising sun.
Where the celestial was first produced is not fixed. The sky viewer without dorsal fins shines on a Chinese scroll from 1772. Yet many point to the Yi dynasty in Dae Han Minguk as breeders of this fish, which is very popular by some.
We found a study about the origins of these beauties.
The abstract goes like this:
Carassius auratus experienced strong human selection during their evolutionary history. Generating a tremendous extent of anatomy variation relative to that in domestic Carassius. To locate the geographic origin we analyzed base sequences from part of the control region (CR). And the entire cytochrome b (Cytb) mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 Carassius and a large series of local specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy–body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin–were selected for hypothesis-testing. This is to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.
About C5 and C6
Principal Finding: Haplotypes of goldfish roots in two sublineages (C5 and C6). They contained the haplotypes of native C. a. auratus from southern China. Values of FST and Nm revealed a close relationship between our fishes and domestic C. a. auratus from the lower Yangtze River.
An extraordinaire find.
We detected stepwise loss of genetic diversity from local fish. This is from Grass-goldfish to other breeds. As well, we found significant negative results for the tests of Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s D* and F*. It includes the Grass breed too. The results identified eye shape as being the least informative character for grouping goldfish concerning their evolutionary history. Fisher’s exact test identified matrilineal constraints on domestication.
Chinese goldfish have matrilineal origin from native southern Chinese C. a. auratus. Above all the lineages from the lower Yangtze River. Organic evolution selection of the indigenous Carassius eliminated aesthetically unappealing Carassius. This action appeared to be responsible for the stepwise decrease in genetic diversity of domesticated ones. This process is similar to that reported for the domestication of pigs, rice, and maize. The three-breed taxonomy–Grass-, Egg-, and Wen-goldfish–better reflected the history of domestication.
What applies for Koi is you use for Fancy Goldfish. You can best start here
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